[This review was originally posted at the Nieman Journalism Lab on June 28, 2013.]
Greenwald, journalism, and advocacy
: It's been three weeks since the last review, and a particularly eventful three weeks at that. So this review will cover more than just the last week, but it'll be weighted toward the most recent stuff. I'll start with the U.S. National Security Agency spying revelations, covering first the reporter who broke them (Glenn Greenwald), then his source (Edward Snowden), and finally a few brief tech-oriented pieces of the news itself.
Nearly a month since the first stories on U.S. government data-gathering, Greenwald, who runs an opinionated and meticulously reported blog for the Guardian, continues to break news of further electronic surveillance, including widespread online metadata collection
by the Obama administration that continues today
, despite the official line that it ended in 2011. Greenwald's been the object of scrutiny himself, with a thorough BuzzFeed profile
on his past as an attorney and questions from reporters
about old lawsuits, back taxes, and student loan debt.
The rhetoric directed toward Greenwald by other journalists was particularly fierce: The New York Times' Andrew Ross Sorkin said on CNBC he's "almost arrest" Greenwald (he later apologized
), and most notably, NBC's David Gregory asked Greenwald "to the extent that you have aided and abetted Snowden," why he shouldn't be charged with a crime. The Washington Post's Erik Wemple refuted Gregory's line of questioning
point-by-point and also examined the legal case for prosecuting Greenwald
(there really isn't one).
There were several other breakdowns of Gregory's questions as a way of defending himself as a professional journalist by excluding Greenwald as one; of these, NYU j-prof Jay Rosen's was the definitive take
. The Los Angeles Times' Benjamin Mueller seconded his point
, arguing that by going after Greenwald's journalistic credentials, "from behind the veil of impartiality, Gregory and his colleagues went to bat for those in power, hiding a dangerous case for tightening the journalistic circle."
The Freedom of the Press Foundation's Trevor Timm argued that Gregory is endangering himself
by defining journalism based on absence of opinion, and The New York Times' David Carr called for journalists to show some solidarity
on behalf of transparency. PaidContent's Mathew Ingram used the case to argue that the "bloggers vs. journalists" tension remains important
, and Greenwald himself said it indicated the incestuous relationship
between Washington journalists and those in power.
A few, like Salon's David Sirota, turned the questions on Gregory
, wondering why he shouldn't be charged with a crime, since he too has disclosed classified information. Or why he should be considered a journalist
, given his track record of subservience to politicians, as New York magazine's Frank Rich argued.
Earlier, Rosen had attempted to mediate some of the criticism of Greenwald by arguing that there are two valid ways of approaching journalism
— with or without politics — that are both necessary for a strong press. North Carolina j-prof John L. Robinson added a call for passion
in journalism, while CUNY j-prof Jeff Jarvis
and Rolling Stone's Matt Taibbi
both went further and argued that all journalism is advocacy.
Snowden and leaking in public
: The other major figure in the aftermath of this story has been Edward Snowden, the employee of a national security contractor who leaked the NSA information to Greenwald and revealed his identity
shortly after the story broke. The U.S. government charged Snowden with espionage
(about which Greenwald was understandably livid
), as he waited in Hong Kong, not expecting to see home again
The first 48 hours of this week were a bit of blur: Snowden applied for asylum in Ecuador
(the country that's been harboring WikiLeaks' Julian Assange), then reportedly left Hong Kong for Moscow
. But Snowden wasn't on a scheduled flight
from Moscow to Cuba, creating confusion about where exactly he was — and whether he was ever in Moscow in the first place. He did all this with the apparent aid of WikiLeaks
, whose leaders claimed that they know where Snowden is
and that they could publish the rest of his NSA documents
. It was a bit of a return to the spotlight for WikiLeaks, which has nonetheless remained on the FBI's radar
for the last several years, with the bureau even paying a WikiLeaks volunteer as an informant
We got accounts from the three journalists Snowden contacted — Greenwald
, The Washington Post's Barton Gellman
, and filmmaker Laura Poitras
— about their interactions with him, as well as a probe by New York Times public editor Margaret Sullivan into why he didn't go to The Times
. In a pair of posts, paidContent's Mathew Ingram argued that the leak's path showed that having a reputation as an alternative voice can be preferable to being in the mainstream
when it comes to some newsgathering, and that news will flow to wherever it finds the least resistance
. The Times' David Carr similarly concluded
that news stories aren't as likely to follow established avenues of power as they used to.
As The Washington Post's Erik Wemple described
, news organizations debated whether to call Snowden a "leaker," "source," or "whistleblower," Several people, including The Atlantic's Garance Franke-Ruta
and Forbes' Tom Watson
, tried to explain why Snowden was garnering less popular support than might be expected, while The New Yorker's John Cassidy detailed the backlash
against Snowden in official circles, which, as Michael Calderone of The Huffington Post pointed out
, was made largely with the aid of anonymity granted by journalists.
Numerous people, such as Kirsten Powers
of The Daily Beast, also decried that backlash, with Ben Smith of BuzzFeed making a particularly salient point
: Journalists have long disregarded their sources' personal motives and backgrounds in favor of the substance of the information they provide, and now that sources have become more public, the rest of us are going to have to get used to that, too.
The New York Times' David Carr also noted
that "The age of the leaker as Web-enabled public figure has arrived."
Finally the tech angle: The Prism program
that Snowden leaked relied on data from tech giants such as Google, Apple, Facebook, and Yahoo, and those companies responded first by denying
their direct involvement
in the program, then by competing to show off their commitment to transparency
, as Time's Sam Gustin reported. First, Google asked the U.S. government for permission to reveal all their incoming government requests for information, followed quickly by Facebook and Microsoft. Then, starting with Facebook, those companies released the total number of government requests for data they've received, though Google and Twitter pushed to be able to release more specific numbers. Though there were early reports of special government access to those companies' servers, Google reported
that it uses secure FTP to transfer its data to the government.
Instagram's bet on longer (but still short) video
: Facebook's Instagram moved into video
last week, announcing 15-second videos, as TechCrunch reported in its good summary
of the new feature. That number drew immediate comparisons to the six-second looping videos of Twitter's Vine. As The New York Times noted
, length is the primary difference between the two video services (though TechCrunch has a pretty comprehensive comparison
), and Instagram is betting that longer videos will be better.
The reason isn't aesthetics: As Quartz's Christopher Mims pointed out
, the ad-friendly 15-second length fits perfectly with Facebook's ongoing move into video advertising. As soon as Instagram's video service was released, critics started asking a question that would've seemed absurd just a few years ago: Is 15 seconds too long
? Josh Wolford of WebProNews concluded
that it is indeed too much, at least for the poorly produced amateur content that will dominate the service. At CNET, Danny Sullivan tried to make peace
with the TL;DR
culture behind Vine and Instagram Video.
Several tech writers dismissed it on sight: John Gruber of Daring Fireball gave it a terse kiss-off
, while Mathew Ingram of GigaOM explained why he won't use it
— can't be easily scanned, and a low signal-to-noise ratio — though he said it could be useful for advertisers and kids. PandoDaily's Nathaniel Mott argued
that Instagram's video (like Instagram itself) is more about vanity-oriented presentation than useful communication. And both John Herrman
of BuzzFeed and Farhad Manjoo
of Slate lamented the idea that Instagram and Facebook seem out of ideas, with Manjoo called it symptomatic of the tech world in general. "Instead of invention, many in tech have fallen into the comfortable groove of reinvention,"
Chris Gayomali of The Week, however, saw room for both Vine and Instagram to succeed
. Meanwhile, Nick Statt of ReadWrite examined the way Instagram's filters have changed the way photography is seen
, even among professional photographers and photojournalists.
A wave of RSS competitors
: As Google Reader approaches its shutdown Monday, several other companies are taking the opportunity to jump into the suddenly reinvigorated RSS market. AOL launched its own Reader
this week, and old favorite NetNewsWire relaunched a new reader
Based on some API code, there was speculation
that Facebook could be announcing its own RSS reader soon. That hasn't happened, though The Wall Street Journal reported
that Facebook is working on a Flipboard-like mobile aggregation device. GigaOM's Eliza Kern explained
why she wouldn't want a Facebook RSS feed, while Fast Company's Chris Dannen said a Facebook RSS reader could actually help solve
the "filter bubble" like-minded information problem.
Sarah Perez of TechCrunch examined the alternatives to Google Reader
, concluding disappointedly that there simply isn't a replacement out there for it. Her colleague, Darrell Etherington, chided tech companies
for their reactionary stance toward RSS development. Carol Kopp of Minyanville argued
, however, that much of the rush toward RSS development is being driven just as much by a desire to crack the mobile-news nut, something she believed could be accomplished. RSS pioneer Dave Winer was also optimistic about its future
, urging developers to think about "What would news do?" in order to reshape it for a new generation.
: A few of the other stories you might have missed over the past couple of weeks:
— Rolling Stone's Michael Hastings, who had built up a reputation as a maverick through his stellar, incisive reporting on foreign affairs, was killed in a car accident
last week at age 33. Several journalists — including BuzzFeed's Ben Smith
, The Guardian's Spencer Ackerman
, Slate's David Weigel
, and freelancer Corey Pein
— wrote warm, inspiring remembrances of a fearless journalist and friend. Time's James Poniewozik detected
among reporters in general "maybe a little shame that more of us don’t always remember who our work is meant to serve" in their responses to Hastings' death.
— Pew's Project for Excellence in Journalism issued a study
based on a survey of nonprofit news organizations that provided some valuable insights into the state of nonprofit journalism. The Lab's Justin Ellis
, Poynter's Rick Edmonds
, and the J-Lab's Jan Schaffer
explained the findings. Media analyst Alan Mutter urged nonprofit news orgs
to put more focus on financial sustainability, while Michele McLellan of the Knight Digital Media Center called on their funders
to do the same thing.
— Oxford's Reuters Institute also issued a survey-based study
whose findings focused on consumers' willingness to pay for news. The Lab's Sarah Darville
and BBC News' Leo Kelion
summarized the findings, while paidContent's Mathew Ingram gave an anti-paywall reading
. The Press Gazette also highlighted a side point
in the study — the popularity of live blogs.
— Texas state politics briefly grabbed a much broader spotlight this week with state Sen. Wendy Davis' successful 13-hour filibuster of a controversial abortion bill. Many people noticed that coverage of the filibuster (and surrounding protest) was propelled by digital photo and video, rather than cable news. VentureBeat's Meghan Kelly
, Time's James Poniewozik
, and The Verge's Carl Franzen
— Finally, a couple of reads from the folks at Digital First, one sobering and another inspiring: CEO John Paton made the case
for the inadequacy of past-oriented models in sustaining newspapers, and digital editor Steve Buttry collected some fantastic advice
for students on shaping the future of journalism.